Alyokhin, A. V., C. Mille, R. H. Messing, and J. J. Duan. 2001. Selection of pupation habitats by Oriental fruit fly larvae in the laboratory. Journal of Insect Behavior 14: 57-67.

We performed a series of laboratory experiments to determine the effects of shade, soil moisture, and soil compaction on the selection of pupation habitats by wandering late instar Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Larvae showed a strong preference towards pupating in shaded rather than brightly lit areas, in moist rather than dry soil, and in soil with larger particle sizes. These behavioral preferences are likely to lead to clumped distribution of Oriental fruit fly pupae in natural habitats. The implications of this for management of localized populations by chemical and biological methods are discussed.