Methyleugenol-baited traps are used for Oriental fruit fly control through male annihilation, as well as for detection and monitoring of fly populations. However, if the males which come to these traps emit sex pheromones, attract females from the surrounding vegetation, and mate with them before being killed, then using such traps might in fact increase levels of fruit infestation. In the present study, we monitored fly abundance in an experimental orchard before, during, and after methyleugenol-baited trap deployment. We also recorded the numbers of flies recruited to the trees with and without traps, and quantified their sexual activity. The males attracted by methyleugenol in our experiments fed on the poisoned baits almost immediately upon their arrival, and did not attempt to emit pheromones or attempt copulations before entering the traps. No changes in female abundance in the vicinity of deployed traps were recorded. Because of their high specificity, low cost, and environmental safety, methyleugenol-baited traps might be a valuable tool for integrated management of Oriental fruit fly populations.