Ferro, D. N., A. V. Alyokhin, and D. B. Tobin. 1999. Reproductive status and flight activity of the overwintered Colorado potato beetle. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 91: 443-448.

Mating behavior of post-diapause Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), was observed within an overwintering site, a rotated potato field, newly colonized potato plants, and under laboratory conditions. The influence of spring mating on beetle flight in the presence and in the absence of host plants was investigated using a computer-linked flight mill system. Diapause was terminated simultaneously in male and female beetles, and the first matings were observed as early as within the first 24 hours after the beetles emerged from the soil (60-90 DD accumulated). The beetles mated within the overwintering site, the potato field, and the fields rotated out of potatoes. Mating status did not affect flight behavior of overwintered beetles; however, unfed beetles displayed higher flight activity than fed beetles. Most flight activity took place soon after flight muscle regeneration, and then declined sharply by the 5th day after flight initiation. Mating in or near overwintering sites soon after diapause termination might be an important factor in providing gene flow between insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible Colorado potato beetle populations, and should be considered in designing resistance management plans.