Yang, P., D. Foote, A. Alyokhin, L. Lenz, and R. Messing. 2002. Distribution and abundance of mymarid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of the two-spotted leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii. Biological Control 23: 237-244.

The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species; as well as Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but lead to a two-fold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas.