Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is the most important insect defoliator of potatoes worldwide. In this study, we conducted a series of no-choice assays comparing Colorado potato beetle reproduction and development on potato plants grown in manure-amended and synthetically fertilized soils. Manure-amended soil received annual applications of raw cow manure since 1991, and additional applications of cull potato compost and green manure between 1991-1998. Plants grown in manure-amended soil were inferior Colorado potato beetle hosts compared to plants grown in synthetically fertilized soil. The observed negative effects were broad in scope. Female fecundity was lower in field cages set up on manure-amended plots early in the season, although it later became comparable between the treatments. Fewer larvae survived past the first instar, and development of immature stages was slowed down on manure-amended plots. In the laboratory, first instars consumed less foliage from plants grown in manure-amended soils. These results demonstrate that organic soil management is associated with plant characteristics unfavorable for beetle reproduction and development, which should be taken into consideration when designing fully integrated crop management systems.