Alyokhin, A., M. Baker, D. Mota-Sanchez, G. Dively, and E. Grafius. 2008. Colorado potato beetle resistance to insecticides. American Journal of Potato Research 85: 395-413.

The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is widely regarded as the most important insect defoliator of potatoes. Its current range covers about 16 million km2 in North America, Europe, and Asia and continues to expand. This insect has a complicated and diverse life history, which is well-suited to agricultural environments, and makes it a complex and challenging pest to control. Dispersal, closely connected with diapause, feeding, and reproduction, allow the Colorado potato beetle to employ “bet-hedging” reproductive strategies, distributing its offspring in both space (within and between fields) and time (within and between years). 
The Colorado potato beetle played a large role in creating the modern pesticide industry, with hundreds of chemicals tested against it. High selection pressure, together with natural propensity to adapt to toxic substances, eventually resulted in a large number of insecticide-resistant Colorado potato beetle populations. Since the middle of the last century, the beetle has developed resistance to 52 different compounds belonging to all major insecticide classes. Resistance levels vary greatly among different populations and between beetle life stages, but in some cases can be very high (up to 2,000-fold). 
 Known mechanisms of Colorado potato beetle resistance to insecticides include enhanced metabolism involving esterases, carboxylesterases and monooxygenases, and target site insensitivity, as well as reduced insecticide penetration and increased excretion. There is also some evidence of behavioral resistance. Resistance mechanisms are sometimes highly diverse even within a relatively narrow geographical area. Resistance is usually inherited as an incompletely dominant or incompletely recessive trait, with one or several genes involved in its determination. Because of pleiotropic effects of resistant alleles, insecticide-resistant beetles often have reduced relative fitness in the absence of insecticides. 
 Rotating different classes of insecticides and reducing insecticidal pressure on pest populations by provision of temporal and spatial refuges from exposure to toxins have been proposed to delay evolution of resistance. However, insecticide resistance in this insect will likely remain a major challenge to the pest control practitioners. Still limited understanding of beetle biology, its flexible life history, and grower reluctance to adopt some of the resistance management techniques create impediments to successful resistance management. Overcoming these obstacles is not an easy task, but it will be crucial for sustainable potato production. [Full Text]