Alyokhin, A. V. and D. N. Ferro. 1999. Reproduction and dispersal of summer-generation Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Environmental Entomology 28: 425-430.

Colorado potato beetle dispersal and reproduction was investigated under field and laboratory conditions. Movement and mating of newly emerged summer-generation Colorado potato beetle adults was monitored in the field using a mark-recapture technique, and beetle mating within experimental plots was recorded. The number of degree-days (DD) required for the beetles to become reproductive was tested in an environmental chamber using 10° C as a developmental threshold. A computer-linked flight mill system was used to quantify the influence of mating on the flight behavior of male and female beetles. Adult dispersal started within the first 24 hours after eclosion from the pupae, but a significant proportion of newly emerged beetles stayed close to the place of their larval development until reaching reproductive maturity. The beetles required at least 34 DD before mating produced viable offspring, and females did not start laying eggs until a minimum of 51 DD after eclosion. Mating had a pronounced effect on beetle flight, decreasing flight activity of the females and increasing flight activity of the males. Enhancing gene flow between beetles surviving on transgenic plants and susceptible beetles in refugia should be advantageous in managing beetle resistance to transgenic plants. [Full Text]